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Federal Noxious Weed
TDA Noxious Weed
TPWD Prohibited Exotic Species
Invasive Plant Atlas of the US

NOTE: means species is on that list.

Perilla frutescens


Beefsteakplant

Synonym(s): Perilla mint, beefsteak, beefsteak mint, Purple mint
Family: Lamiaceae
Duration and Habit: Annual Herb


Photographer: John D. Byrd
Source: Mississippi State University

Description

Beefsteak plants are small, freely branching annual herbs in the mint family (Lamiaceae) that reach a height between 18 and 30 inches. Small ovate leaves are generally purple or green and are arranged in an opposite formation along the four-sided stem. Small bell-shaped flowers are white and purple with a distinctive ring of fine hairs along the bottom. They may be arranged in a terminal cluster or within the leaf axils and appear between July and October. Stems and leaves have a very strong characteristic odor. It superficially resembles basil and coleus.

Native Lookalikes: Currently no information available here yet, or there are no native Texas species that could be confused with Beefsteakplant.

Ecological Threat: Often planted as showy ornamentals, beefsteak plants may readily escape cultivation, spreading to disturbed areas where they disrupt native ecosystems. The species has toxic characteristics and very few predators. It is ordinarily avoided by cattle and has been implicated in cattle poisoning. Plants are most toxic if cut and dried for hay late in the summer, during seed production. One reason for beefsteak plants' survival in pastures is that cattle avoid it. Sold as a salad plant for its dark purple foliage, this member of the mint family is extremely invasive by wind-borne seeds.

Biology & Spread: It is extremely invasive by wind-borne seeds.

History: Introduced as a ornamental, herb and salad plant.

U.S. Habitat: Prominent along roadsides, railroad rightof- ways, streams, spring branches, pastures, fields, woodlands and gravel bars. It can grow in rich soils, alluvial soils or dry soils.

Distribution

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Native Origin: Asia

U.S. Present: AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, W(AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV

Distribution:

Mapping

Invaders of Texas Map: Perilla frutescens
EDDMapS: Perilla frutescens
USDA Plants Texas County Map: Perilla frutescens

Invaders of Texas Observations

List All Observations of Perilla frutescens reported by Citizen Scientists

Native Alternatives

Management

Manual- Pull seedlings and small or shallow-rooted plants when soil is moist. Dig out larger plants, including the root systems. To prevent spread of seeds, cut off spent flowers ("deadhead") or cut off seeds or fruits before they ripen. Bag, and burn or send to the landfill.

Chemical- It can be effectively controlled using any of several readily available general use herbicides such as Glyphosate. Follow label and state requirements.

USE PESTICIDES WISELY: ALWAYS READ THE ENTIRE PESTICIDE LABEL CAREFULLY, FOLLOW ALL MIXING AND APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND WEAR ALL RECOMMENDED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR AND CLOTHING. CONTACT YOUR STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL PESTICIDE USE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS. MENTION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS ON THIS WEB SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ENDORSEMENT OF ANY MATERIAL.

Text References

USDA Forest Service. 2005. Beefsteak Plant: Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Weed of the Week. WOW 01-23-05

Online Resources

Search Online

Google Search: Perilla frutescens
Google Images: Perilla frutescens
NatureServe Explorer: Perilla frutescens
USDA Plants: Perilla frutescens
Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States: Perilla frutescens
Bugwood Network Images: Perilla frutescens

Last Updated: 10-12-2009 by HTG
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