Synonym(s): Bromus japonicus
Family: Poaceae (Grass Family)
Duration and Habit: Annual Grass/Grasslike
Field brome is a winter annual. It produces dense, low leafy growth in the fall. Spring growth starts earlier than most other annual grasses used for cover crops. It does not have creeping stolons or rhizomes. It produces seedheads in late spring or early summer. Culms solitary. Culms erect ascending; 25-90 cm long; 2-8 -noded. Leaf-sheaths pubescent. Leaf-blades 5-20 cm long; 2-6(-10) mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; pilose. Inflorescence a panicle 8-25 cm long; 6-20 cm wide. 1-8 fertile spikelets on each lower branch. Spikelets solitary.It grows vigorously under high fertility and often smothers other grasses or weeds. It is an excellent seed producer and can maintain itself as a reseeding annual. There are 250,000 seeds per pound.
Ecological Threat: This plant may become weedy or invasive in some regions or habitats and may displace desirable vegetation if not properly managed. It grows vigorously under high fertility and often smothers other grasses or weeds. It is an excellent seed producer and can maintain itself as a reseeding annual. There are 250,000 seeds per pound.
Biology & Spread: Distribution that has been shaped by human movements both within and between continents.
History: Mainly used for erosion control and soil improvement.
U.S. Habitat: Dry habitats, such as roadsides, waste places on sandy or rocky soils.
U.S. Nativity: Introduced to U.S.
Native Origin: Europe and Asia.
U.S. Present: AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Distribution: Widely naturalized in temperate regions. Cosmopolitan in the U.S.
List All Observations of Bromus arvensis reported by Citizen Scientists
Clayton, W.D., K.T. Harman, and H. Williamson. 2008. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. Accessed 08 November 2006.
Oja, T., V. Jaaska, and V. Vislap. 2003. Breeding system, evolution and taxonomy of Bromus arvensis, B. japonicus and B. squarrosus (Poaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 242:101-117.
Roy J., Navas M. L., Sonie L. 1991. Invasions by annual bromegrasses: a case study challenging thehomoclime approach to invasions. In: Grove R. N., di Castri F. (eds.) Biogeography of Mediterranean invasions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 205-221.
Stebbins G. L. 1981. Chromosomes and evolution in the genus Bromus (Gramineae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 102: 359-379.
USDA PLANT FACT SHEET
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