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TDA Noxious Weed
TPWD Prohibited Exotic Species
Invasive Plant Atlas of the US

NOTE: means species is on that list.

Urochloa maxima


Guineagrass

Synonym(s): Panicum maximum,
Family: Poaceae (Grass Family)
Duration and Habit: Perennial Grass/Grasslike


Photographer: Steve Conklin
Source: Rio Grande Valley Invaders

Description

U. maxima is described as a tufted perennial, often with a short creeping rhizome, variable 60-200 cm high, leaf blades up to 35 mm wide tapering to a fine point; panicle 12-40 cm long, open spikelets 3-3.5 mm long, obtuse, green or purplish, glumes unequal, the lower one being one-third to one fourth as long as the spikelet, lower floret usually male or empty depending on the variety. Upper floret (seed) distinctly transversely wrinkled lemma and palea. The grain is about 2mm long

Ecological Threat: U. maxima forms dense stands in open pastures and disturbed areas. Guinea grass can suppresses or displace local plants on fertile soils in pastures Its resistance to drought also means it builds up a dangerous mass of plant material so when fires occur, the blaze is fiercer and native plants which have not built up fire-tolerance are wiped out. As guinea Grass can survive fires, it can dominate the ground after a fire.

Biology & Spread: Seeds profusely but seeds are of low germination, often empty and do not survive long. The seeds are dispersed short distances by wind. Fire will sweep through stands of this grass but it regenerates rapidly from underground rhizomes

History:

U.S. Habitat: agricultural areas, riparian zones, disturbed

Distribution

U.S. Nativity: Introduced to U.S.

Native Origin: Africa

U.S. Present: AZ, CA, FL, GA, HI, LA, TX

Distribution:

Mapping

Invaders of Texas Map: Urochloa maxima
EDDMapS: Urochloa maxima
USDA Plants Texas County Map: Urochloa maxima

Invaders of Texas Observations

List All Observations of Urochloa maxima reported by Citizen Scientists

Resembles/Alternatives

Management

Physical: Hand pulling / grubbing also works, but spraying seems easier.

Chemical: Susceptible to glyphosate and readily controlled by drizzle applications. Young plants are susceptible to selective grass-killers.

Biological: Plants die rapidly under close continuous grazing.

USE PESTICIDES WISELY: ALWAYS READ THE ENTIRE PESTICIDE LABEL CAREFULLY, FOLLOW ALL MIXING AND APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND WEAR ALL RECOMMENDED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR AND CLOTHING. CONTACT YOUR STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL PESTICIDE USE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS. MENTION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS ON THIS WEB SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ENDORSEMENT OF ANY MATERIAL.

Text References

IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG. 2006. Urochloa maxima (grass). Accessed 25 November 2008: http://www.invasivespecies.net/database/species/ecology.asp?si=398&fr=1&sts=

Online Resources

Search Online

Google Search: Urochloa maxima
Google Images: Urochloa maxima
NatureServe Explorer: Urochloa maxima
USDA Plants: Urochloa maxima
Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States: Urochloa maxima
Bugwood Network Images: Urochloa maxima

Last Updated: 2008-11-25 by HTG
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