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Federal Noxious Weed
TDA Noxious Weed
TPWD Prohibited Exotic Species
Invasive Plant Atlas of the US

NOTE: means species is on that list.

Allium vineale


Wild garlic

Synonym(s): Field garlic, Crow garlic
Family: Liliaceae
Duration and Habit: Perennial Forb/Herb


Photographer: Leslie J. Mehrhoff
Source: University of Connecticut

Description

Wild garlic is a grass-like, bulb-forming perennial plant. It is characterized by round, hollow, slender, erect stems leaves, and a globe-like flower head at the top of each stem. Globe-like flower heads composed of tiny aerial bulblets rather than flowers--the species reproduces by underground and aerial bulblets. When crushed, all parts give off strong garlic odor.

Ecological Threat: Wild garlic is persistent and difficult to control. Aerial bulblets are similar in size to grains and are difficult to separate out of crops contaminated during harvest. The bulblets can give flour a garlic flavor and odor. If wild garlic is used as forage, the resulting meat, milk and eggs can become tainted with a garlic odor and flavor.

Biology & Spread: Basal leaves of wild garlic emerge in early spring. Flowering occurs from May to June. After flowering, the leaves die back, and the flower stems may remain standing through the summer and into fall. Aerial and soft-coated bulblets can germinate the same season they are produced, while hard-coated bulblets remain dormant through the winter and germinate the following spring or within the next 1 to 5 years. Sometimes aerial bulblets germinate in the stem-top clusters while the stems are still standing.

History: Wild garlic arrived in the Americas mixed in soil used for ballast on European ships. Wild garlic was dumped ashore to make room for the return cargo.

U.S. Habitat: Wild garlic is drought tolerant and can grow in a variety of soil types. Wild garlic is common in grain fields, pastures, meadows, lawns, gardens and waste places, as well as along roads, rivers and streams.

Distribution

U.S. Nativity: Introduced to U.S.

Native Origin: Wild garlic originated in Europe.

U.S. Present: WA, OR, CA, MT, NE, KS, OK, IA, MO, AR, LA, IL, MS, MI, IN, KY, TN, GA, OH, WV, VA, NC, SC, GA, PA, NY, VA, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, DE, DC, MD, TX

Distribution: Currently limited in distribution in Texas.

Mapping

Invaders of Texas Map: Allium vineale
EDDMapS: Allium vineale
USDA Plants Texas County Map: Allium vineale

Invaders of Texas Observations

List All Observations of Allium vineale reported by Citizen Scientists

Resembles/Alternatives

Management

Tilling the soil does not kill wild garlic, food reserves in the bulb reestablish the plant after tillage. In gardens and ornamental settings, cut the garlic below the soil with a hoe or shovel. While this does not kill the plant, it does slow regrowth. Covering patches with plastic or weed barriers can prevent emergence of the species. Several herbicides have been shown to be effective in providing control, including 2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, dicamba, and metsulfuron.

USE PESTICIDES WISELY: ALWAYS READ THE ENTIRE PESTICIDE LABEL CAREFULLY, FOLLOW ALL MIXING AND APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND WEAR ALL RECOMMENDED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR AND CLOTHING. CONTACT YOUR STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL PESTICIDE USE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS. MENTION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS ON THIS WEB SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ENDORSEMENT OF ANY MATERIAL.

Text References

Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook. Revised and published annually by the Extension publication offices of Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Also available on the web at http://pnwhandbooks.org/weed/.

Online Resources

Ohio Perennial and Biennial Weed Guide. The Ohio State University Extension. Available on the web at http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/weedguide/.

Search Online

Google Search: Allium vineale
Google Images: Allium vineale
NatureServe Explorer: Allium vineale
USDA Plants: Allium vineale
Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States: Allium vineale
Bugwood Network Images: Allium vineale

Last Updated: 2014-03-25 by Justin Bush, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
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